ADHERENCE LEVEL AND ITS SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC DETERMINATIONS FOR PMTCT AMONG HIV POSITIVE PREGNANT WOMEN ON HAART AT IMO STATE SPECIALIST HOSPITAL OWERRI NIGERIA
Attainment of optimal adherence level to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV requires addressing salient factors posing challenges to HIV positive (HIV+) pregnant women in keeping the minimum required level of the treatment to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This study was aimed at assessing the adherence level and socio-demographic determinant factors of adherence to PMTCT among HIV+ mothers on HAART between June 2016 and October 2016 at Imo State Specialist Hospital, Owerri Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on HAART adherence, as well as socio-demographic factors of the participants. Self-reported adherence was used to assess the adherence level. Adherence was calculated from the percentage proportion of number of doses taken to that of doses prescribed, and taking at least 95% regimen was considered as the optimal adherence level. Descriptive method was used to represent the rate of adherence while socio-demographic factors were assessed as independent predictors in a multivariate logistic regression model. A total of 306 HIV+ women were used in the study and 74.5% adhered (non-adherent = 25.5%) to HAART. Among the non-adhered women, their reasons were forgetfulness (37.3%), cost (24.4%), feeling healthy (14.4%), side effects (9%), drugs were not working (6.4%), very ill (3.8%) and stigmatization (2.6%). Significant factors of non-adherent to were unmarried marital status (p=0.002, 95% CI for OR=1.51– 6.50) and wider parity of 5 and above (p=0.033, 95% CI for OR=1.11–10.61). Other socio-demographic of adherence were education level (secondary: p< 0.0001, 95% CI for OR=0.12 – 0-55; tertiary: p=0.001, 95% CI for OR= 0.11-0.59) and occupation (civil service: p=0.004, 95% CI for OR=0.06 –0.59). Gaps of MTCT still remain among HIV+ pregnant women. To meaningfully achieve effective PMTCT, more attention should be given to the socio-demographic and other associating factors of non-adherence to HAART.
Keywords: Adherence, HIV, PMTCT, HAART
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