HISTAMINE AND CYTOKINES AS MEDIATORS RELEASED DURING ASTHMA ATTACK
Lung diseases are amongst the most common medical conditions in the world. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis and asthma are the result of ongoing inflammatory process. Over three decades the prevalence of chronic inflammatory lung diseases (asthma, COPD, fibrosis) are increasing worldwide. Asthma as a common chronic disorder of the airways, is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms pertaining to airflow obstruction, bronchial hyper-responsiveness, and an underlying inflammation. Clinical manifestations and response to treatment are determined by the interactions of these features of asthma. The symptoms can be controlled by muscle relaxing and anti-inflammatory drugs, however, there is yet no cure available for asthma. An imbalance of cytokines released from T helper cells cause asthma pathogenesis. T lymphocytes (especially T helper lymphocytes) are important in the pathogenesis of asthma and can be divided into two subsets: Th1 and Th2. Histamines inhibit the production of Th1 such as IL2, IL12, and IFN Y. Th1 is known to mediate autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis while Th2 mediates allergic diseases. Th2 cytokines (Interleukins) IL4, IL5, IL9, and IL13 are implicated in the expression and development of airways inflammation and hyperactivity (AHR). This review evaluates the mechanisms and roles of cytokines and histamines in chronic inflammatory conditions of asthma. Knowledge of these factors can lead to identification and enhancement of hidden problems in the management of asthma conditions or lead to other new therapeutic targets in chronic inflammatory processes.
Keywords: Cytokine, Inflammation, Chronic disorder, Histamines, Interleukins
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